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Methodology


Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

Eight focus discussion groups have been formed at the field sites, i.e. two groups at each of the two sites on Sumba and Flores respectively. The discussion groups include men and women of a range of ages. These groups meet twice a month and there is full attendance and participation from the group members.

Outline for Participatory Rural Appraisal Survey

 

1. Socio-economic aspects

The following methodology was developed after discussion of the CIFOR procedure for PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) used at the Makaram site. Information gathering will be considered in the context of three elements: State, Society, Market. The timeline for the information gathered will be limited by people's experience and their assessment of change during that time.

 

2. Biophysical aspects

Biophysical aspects will include consideration of land/soil, forest/field, water.  In each section, questions have been framed in terms of Status (perbahan), Problems (masala), and Solutions (potensi dan solusi)

 

3. Social cultural aspects

Social cultural aspects include community structure and government/management, and the influences of factors such as clan, religion, and education.

 

 

 DATA COLLECTION WITH PRA TECHNIQUE

 

 

 

 

 

 TECHNIQUE

SOURCE OF INFORMATION

DATA / INFORMATION TO BE COLLECTED

HISTORY OF VILLAGE

Focus Group Discussion (FGD), COMMUNITY LEADERS

Establishment of the village, settlement, inhabitants pedigree, the establishment of village organisation, development of public facilities

DIAGRAM OF

 

SOCIO  ECONOMY

TENDENCY

Focus discussion groups (FDG)

Time Line

AND

LOCAL GOV.,

Livelihood

CHANGE

FARMERS,

Change of livelihood year by year

 

INHABITANTS,

Livelihood and the use of natural resources

 

COMMUNITY LEADERS

Type of produce taken from forest and savanna - based on level of exploitation year by year

 

 

Change of forest crop

 

 

Change of forest produce based on quantity

 

 

Change of forest produce based on quality

 

 

Change of area and location

 

 

Change of area

 

 

Change of location 

 

 

Change of natural resources based on farmer's assessment 

 

HOUSEHOLD SAMPLE

Household economy 

 

 

Change of income resources year by year 

 

 

Change of production capability for every type of business

 

 

Change of income based on type of business and time 

 

 

Change of income based on type of business

 

 

Change of income based on time 

 

 

Changes in use of forest and savanah produce

 

 

Change in types of forest and savanna produce

 

 

Change in total produce of forest and savanna harvested

 

 

Level of income based on time - year

 

 

Change of farmers' limitation in their farming pattern

 

 

Change of planting pattern 

 

 

Change of slash and burning

 

 

BIOPHYSICAL

 

FGD

Change of land ownership 

 

HOUSEHOLD,

Change of land use

 

TRADITIONAL LEADERS,

Change of cultivation land

 

COMMUNITY LEADERS,

Change of forest use 

 

RELIGIOUS LEADERS,

Change of savannah use

 

FARMERS,

Change of land fertility and productivity

 

INHABITANT.

Change of land management 

 

 

Erosion rate and sedimentation 

 

 

Change of flora and fauna type and function 

 

 

Change of density and diversity of flora 

 

 

Change of fauna migration 

 

 

Change of forest and savanna management

 

 

Change of farm land area

 

 

Change of damage caused by fauna on farm 

 

 

Change in the practice of removal and management of forest produce

 

 

Change in burning practice grassland, forest and garden

 

 

Change in number  and location of permanent and temporary springs

 

 

Change of water source ownership

 

 

Change of water supply

 

 

Change of water discharge 

 

 

Change in depth of ground water

 

 

Change in management of water source  based on regulation and protection

 

 

The length of rainy season change

 

 

SOCIO CULTURAL 

 

 

Change of social stratification 

 

 

Change of clan number 

 

 

Change of clan relationship 

 

 

Change of clan domination in the society

 

 

Change of relation pattern in the society

 

 

Change of leadership pattern in the society 

 

 

Change of setllement pattern 

 

 

Change of dwelling house type and each material

 

 

 Institutional change

 

 

Change of migration pattern

 

 

Change of values and the norms in connection with the environment

 

 

Change of cooperation in the society 

 

 

Change in behavior of environment management  

 

 

Change of religion and belief Influence in the society  

 

 

Change of government influence in the society

 

 

Change of ritual place and custom ceremony

 

 

Change of education  Influence in the society

 

 

Change of communication Influence in the society

 

 

Change of political influence in the society

 

 

Change of  society influence to fire management

 

 

Change in the structure of power

SEASONAL CALENDAR

 

SOCIO  ECONOMY

 

FGD

Livelihood

 

VILLAGE GOV.,

Type of livelihood 

 

FARMERS,

Type of dominant activity for each type of livelihood 

 

INHABITANT,

Dominant activity based on month 

 

COMMUNITY LEADERS,

Leading of Activity

 

 

Leading livelihood 

 

 

Livelihood and the use of natural resources 

 

 

Type of forest and savanah produce  - based on season

 

 

Time of removal of forest produce

 

 

Household Economy 

 

HOUSEHOLD SAMPLE

Permanent source of income and unpermanent sourse of income  - per month 

 

 

Leading Activity

 

 

The amount of income 

 

 

The amount of income based on time 

 

 

Level of income based on time 

 

 

Income per month 

 

 

Planting pattern

 

 

BIOPHYSICAL

 

FGD,

Burning practice of  forest, savanah and garden

 

VILLAGE GOV.,

Practice of forest burning

 

FARMERS,

Practice of savanah burning

 

INHABITANT,

Practice of gardens burning

 

COMMUNITY LEADERS,

Length of the rainy season

VILLAGE MAP

 

SOCIO  ECONOMY

 

FGD,

Livelihood and the use of natural resources 

 

VILLAGE GOV.,

Area and location of forest

 

FARMERS,

Area and location of savanah and garden

 

INHABITANT,

BIOPHYSICAL

 

COMMUNITY LEADERS,

Location of slash and burning

 

 

Location of communal, government and individually owned land

 

 

The use of land 

 

 

Borders of the use of land

 

 

Location of fire sensitive vegetation - forest, savannah and garden

 

 

Location of permanent spring

 

 

Location of temporary spring

 

 

Location of high erosion

 

 

Location of high sediment  

 

 

Fertile location

 

 

Location of Natural Forest-Production-Conservation

 

 

Location of dense vegetation 

 

 

Fire Potency

 

 

Location of settlement

 

 

Public infrastructure

GARDEN SKETCH

 

SOCIO  ECONOMY

 

HOUSEHOLD SAMPLE

Household Economy 

 

 

Relationship between  livelihood and farm land

 

 

Condition of garden plant varities, condition of vegetation

 

 

Border of garden and savanah and/or forest

FLOW CHART

 

SOCIO  ECONOMY

 

FGD

Livelihood and the use of natural resources 

 

 

Allocation of forest produce

 

 

Household Economy 

 

HOUSEHOLD SAMPLE

Chain of marketing 

 

 

Channel of information for regulation and policies

DIAGRAM OF

 

SOCIO CULTURE

RELATIONSHIP

FGD

Closeness of the relationships between clans

 

VILLAGE GOV.,

Closeness of the relationship and influence of NGO's

 

FARMERS,

Closeness of the relationship and influence of the local village government

 

INHABITANT,

Closeness of the relationship and influence of community development agencies

 

COMMUNITY LEADERS,

Closeness of relationship and influence of government technical assistance

TRANSECT

FGD

Patterns of land use,  planting pattern

 

 

Supply of food for animal breeding

 

 

Fertility, slope of land, location of erosion, land use, density and type of vegetation, soil depth, ratio of rock to soil

 

 

Fire locations

SCHEDULE OF DAILY

HOUSEHOLD SAMPLE

Men and women working (hours per day and variation with month)

STUDY OF LIVELIHOOD

HOUSEHOLD

Type of livelihood and type of dominant activity

 

FGD

Forest produce removal,  Total forest produce taken

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Summary of scope of the Participatory Rural Appraisal - in Bahasa Indonesian

 

1. Socio-economic Aspects

·         Mata penchaharian (livelihood)

·         jenis (types)

·         jumlah petani per category (number farmers per category) untuk seluruh mayarakat desa  (for whole village society/community)

·         perubahannya berdasarkan tahun (changes according to year)

·         jenis pekerjaan yang dominan untuk setiap jenis mata penchaharian (types of dominant activities per livelihood category)

·         kegiatan dominan berdasarkan bulan (dominant activities per month, per livelihood category)

·         Mata pencaharian and pemanfaatan sumber daya alam

·         Jenis hasil hutan and padang rumput yang diambil (rotan, ubi-ubian, madu, kayu, burung etc.)

·         jumlah setiap jenis yang diambil (kg, kubik, Rp)

·         peruntukkan (a) konsumi sendiri (b) dijual

·         waktu pengambilan

·         cara pengambilan

·         perubahan (changes) in (a) persediaan (quality and quantity) (b) kerusakan yang timbul (impacts) (c) luasan and lokasi (extent and location) (d) catat (note) perubahan sumber daya alam (natural resources) berdasarkan penilaian petani

·         siapa saja yang memanfaatkan hasil hutan dan padang rumput (luar/external, dalam/internal)

·         Ekonomi rumah tangga (household economic information)—to be considered by socio-economic categories (e.g. rich and poor households)

·         sumber pendapatan (tetap/tidak tetap)—sources of income

·         kemampuan produksi setiap jenis usaha (sayuran, jambu mente, kakao, kelapa, etc.)

·         jumlah produksi masing masing jenis yang (a) konsumsi sendiri (b) jual

·         jumlah (amount) pendapatan berdasarkan (a) jenis usaha (b) waktu (per tahun)

·         jenis (types), jumlah (amounts), dan pemanfaatan (uses) hasil hutan yang diambil (taken) rumah tanggah bersangkutan (certain households)

·         tingkat pendapatan berdasarkan (a) bulan (b) tahun—listing production of different households by month, year

·         jalur/rantai pemasaran (in which part of the (market) chain are products sold...within village, local market, Waingapu market, etc)

·         biaya usaha tani (costs to farmers) e.g. (a) kebun (b) ternak—to be expressed on a unit area basis—costs should be assessed for all types of economic production

·         keterbatasan (limitations) petani /dalam usaha tani—explicitly ask what limitations informants perceive for developing certain activities, e.g. unavailability of certain varieties of jagung etc.

·         analisa (analysis) pada (on) pola (patterns) usaha tani (farm work) yang berbeda-beda (different patterns of farm work, e.g. slash & burn vs. permanent agriculture; gender differentiation)—cost/benefit ratio.  This aspect not specifically part of PRA, but to be undertaken subsequently

2. Biophysical aspects

Biophysical aspects will include consideration of tanah, hutan/padang, air.  In each section, questions have been framed in terms of Status (perbahan), Problems (masala), and Solutions (potensi dan solusi)

·         Tanah

·         kepemilikan (ownership) (komunal/individual/negara (state))

·         topografi; tingkat (degree, level) kemiringan (slope)

·         pemanfaatan lahan (landuse) (hutan, padang, tegalan, sawah)

·         keadaan/kondisi fisik tanah (solum, lapisan olah, struktur, porositas,

·         (kelembaban tanah)

·         produktivitas lahan, tingkat kesuburan tanah

·         pengelolaan lahan (land management) (tradisional, luar)

·         tingkat erosi tanah, tingkat sedimentasi

·         pengolongan jenis tanah (land use types)

·         Hutan / padang vegetasi (flora dan fauna)

·         jenis dan fungsi vegetasi dan fauna

·         kepadatan (density)—kerapatan dan jumlah

·         tingkat dominan flora and fauna

·         tingkat migrasi fauna

·         tumbuhan dan hewan yang dibudi-dayakan

·         pengelolaan hutan dan padang

·         perubahan luasan (hutan/padang) lahan pertanian

·         kerusakan yang ditimbulkan oleh fauna usaha tani dan keseimbangan alam

·         keadaan (condition) vegetasi di batas batas (ecotone/pinggir) antara hutan, padang, kebun

·         praktek praktek pengambilan dan pengelolaan hasil hutan

·         praktek praktek pembakaran padang, hutan, kebun

·         Air sumber

·         jumlah dan lokasi sumber air permanen dan temporer

·         kepemilikan (ownership) sumber air

·         lama ketersediaan (availability of surface water)

·         debit air (volume per second)

·         kedalaman air tanah

·         pemanfaatan (pertanian, ternak, rumah tangga)

·         pengelolaan sumber air (aturan, perlindungan), including fire management practices

·         kelembaban tanah

·         lama bulan hujan (also need rainfall data)

3. Sosial budaya (aspects)—Struktur dan stratifikasi; nealitan kearitan lokal; pola membakar

·         Struktur dan stratifikasi

·         jumlah dan nama suku (klan)

·         stratifikasi dalam setiap klan, masyarakat

·         hubungan (connection) antara klan

·         jumlah / dominasi klan dan masyarakat (pengaruh=influence)—catatan:  semuanya dalam rentang waktu

·         pola hubungan antara strata

·         pola kepemimpinan dalam masyarakat (formal dan informal)

·         pola pemukiman

·         bentuk (form) dan behan rumah

·         institusi dan kelembagaan

·         pola perpindaham / migrasi

·         nilai-nilai norma-norma yang terkait degan lingkungan

·         pola kerja sama dalam masyarakat

·         penlaku pengelolaan lingkungan (environmental)

·         pengaruh agama dan kepercayaan (dignity) dalam kehidupan (livelihood) masyarakat

·         pengaruh pemerintah (government) dalam kehidupan masyarakat

·         tempat ritual dan seremonial adat

·         pengaruh pendidikan (education) dalam kehidupan masyarakat

·         pengaruh komunikasi

·         pengaruh politik

·         persepsi masyarakat terhadap proyek pengelolaan api

 

 


 
Authorised by: Project Team | Last Updated: March, 2003
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